4151. pneuma
Lexical Summary
pneuma: wind, spirit
Original Word: πνεῦμα
Transliteration: pneuma
Phonetic Spelling: (pnyoo'-mah)
Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter
Short Definition: wind, spirit
Meaning: wind, spirit
Strong's Concordance
spirit, ghost

From pneo; a current of air, i.e. Breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figuratively, a spirit, i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, demon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy Spirit -- ghost, life, spirit(-ual, -ually), mind. Compare psuche.

see GREEK pneo

see GREEK psuche

Thayer's Greek Lexicon
STRONGS NT 4151: πνεῦμα

πνεῦμα, πνεύματος, τό (πνέω), Greek writings from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; Hebrew רוּחַ, Latinspiritus; i. e.:

1. a movement of air (gentle) blast;

a. of the wind: ἀνέμων πνεύματα, Herodotus 7, 16, 1; Pausanias, 5, 25; hence, the wind itself, John 3:8; plural Hebrews 1:7 (1 Kings 18:45; 1 Kings 19:11; Job 1:19; Psalm 103:4 (), etc.; often in Greek writings).

b. breath of the nostrils or mouth, often in Greek writings from Aeschylus down: πνεῦμα τοῦ στόματος, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 (Psalm 32:6 (), cf. Isaiah 11:4); πνεῦμα ζωῆς, the breath of life, Revelation 11:11 (Genesis 6:17, cf. πνοή ζωῆς, ). (πνεῦμα and πνοή seem to have been in the main coincident terms; but πνοή became the more poetic. Both retain a suggestion of their evident etymology. Even in classical Greek πνεῦμα became as frequent and as wide in its application as ἄνεμος. (Schmidt, chapter 55, 7; Trench, § lxxiii.))

2. the spirit, i. e. the vital principle by which the body is animated ((Aristotle, Polybius, Plutarch, others; see below)): Luke 8:55; Luke 23:46; John 19:30; Acts 7:59; Revelation 13:15 (here R. V. breath); ἀφιέναι τό πνεῦμα, to breathe out the spirit, to expire, Matthew 27:50 cf. Sir. 38:23; Wis. 16:14 (Greek writings said ἀφιέναι τήν ψυχήν, as Genesis 35:18, see ἀφίημι, 1 b. and Kypke, Observations, i, p. 140; but we also find ἀφιέναι πνεῦμα θανσίμω σφαγή, Euripides, Hec. 571); σῶμα χωρίς πνεύματος νεκρόν ἐστιν, James 2:26; τό πνεῦμα ἐστι τό ζοωποιουν, σάρξ οὐκ ὠφελεῖ οὐδέν, the spirit is that which animates and gives life, the body is of no profit (for the spirit imparts life to it, not the body in turn to the spirit; cf. Chr. Frid. Fritzsche, Nova opuscc., p. 239), John 6:63. the rational spirit, the power by which a human being feels, thinks, wills, decides; the soul: τό πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τό ἐν αὐτῷ, 1 Corinthians 2:11; opposed to σάρξ (which see (especially 2 a.)), Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Colossians 2:5; opposed to τό σῶμα, Romans 8:10; 1 Corinthians 6:17, 20 Rec.; ; 1 Peter 4:6. Although for the most part the words πνεῦμα and ψυχή are used indiscriminately and so σῶμα and ψυχή put in contrast (but never by Paul; see ψυχή, especially 2), there is also recognized a threefold distinction, τό πνεῦμα καί ψυχή καί τό σῶμα, 1 Thessalonians 5:23, according to which τό πνεῦμα is the rational part of man, the power of perceiving and grasping divine and eternal things, and upon which the Spirit of God exerts its influence; (πνεῦμα, says Luther, "is the highest and noblest part of man, which qualifies him to lay bold of incomprehensible, invisible, eternal things; in short, it is the house where Faith and God's word are at home" (see references at end)): ἄχρι μερισμοῦ ψυχῆς καί πνεύματος (see μερισμός, 2), Hebrews 4:12; ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, μία ψυχή, Philippians 1:27 (where instead of μία ψυχή Paul according to his mode of speaking elsewhere would have said more appropriately μία καρδία). τό πνεῦμα τίνος, Mark 2:8; Mark 8:12; Lukei. 47; Acts 17:16; Romans 1:9; Romans 8:16; 1 Corinthians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 16:18; 2 Corinthians 2:13; 2 Corinthians 7:13; Galatians 6:18; (Philippians 4:23 L T Tr WH); Philemon 1:25; 2 Timothy 4:22; Θεός τῶν πνευμάτων (for which Rec. has ἁγίων) τῶν προφητῶν, who incites and directs the souls of the prophets, Revelation 22:6, where cf. Düsterdieck. the dative τῷ πνεύματι is used to denote the seat (locality) where one does or suffers something, like our in spirit: ἐπιγινώσκειν, Mark 2:8; ἀναστενάζειν, Mark 8:12; ἐμβρίμασθαι, John 11:33; ταράσσεσθαι, John 13:21; ζηιν, Acts 18:25; Romans 12:11; ἀγαλλίασθαι, Luke 10:21 (but L T Tr WH here add ἁγίῳ); the dative of respect: 1 Corinthians 5:3; Colossians 2:5; 1 Peter 4:6; κραταιουσθαι, Luke 1:80; Luke 2:40 Rec.; ἅγιον εἶναι, 1 Corinthians 7:34; ζοωποιηθεις, 1 Peter 3:18; ζῆν, 1 Peter 4:6; πτωχοί, Matthew 5:3; dative of instrument: δεδεμένος, Acts 20:22; συνέχεσθαι, Rec.; Θεῷ λατρεύειν, Philippians 3:3 R G; dative of advantage: ἄνεσιν τῷ πνεύματι μου, 2 Corinthians 2:13 (12); ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, is used of the instrument, 1 Corinthians 6:20 Rec. (it is surely better to take ἐν τῷ πνεύματι here locally, of the 'sphere' (Winer's Grammar, 386 (362), cf. 1 Corinthians 6:19)); also ἐν πνεύματι, nearly equivalent to πνευματικῶς (but see Winer's Grammar, § 51, 1 e. note), John 4:23; of the seat of an action, ἐν τῷ πνεύματι μου, Romans 1:9; τιθέναι ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, to propose to oneself, purpose in spirit, followed by the infinitive (πορεύεσθαι, Acts 19:21. πνεύματα προφητῶν, according to the context the souls (spirits) of the prophets moved by the Spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 14:32; in a peculiar sense πνεῦμα is used of a soul thoroughly roused by the Holy Spirit and wholly intent on divine things, yet destitute of distinct self-consciousness and clear understanding; thus in the phrases τό πνεῦμα μου προσεύχεται, opposed to νοῦς μου, 1 Corinthians 14:14; πνεύματι λαλεῖν μυστήρια, 1 Corinthians 14:2; προσεύχεσθαι, ψάλλειν, εὐλογεῖν, τῷ πνεύματι, as opposed to τῷ νοι<, 1 Corinthians 14:15, 16.

3. "a spirit, i. e. a simple essence, devoid of all or at least all grosser matter, and possessed of the power of knowing, desiring, deciding, and acting";

a. generically: Luke 24:37; Acts 23:8 (on which see μήτε, at the end); Acts 23:9; πνεῦμα σάρκα καί ὀστέα οὐκ ἔχει, Luke 24:39; πνεῦμα ζοωποιουν (a life-giving spirit), spoken of Christ as raised from the dead, 1 Corinthians 15:45; πνεῦμα Θεός (God is spirit essentially), John 4:24; πατήρ τῶν πνευμάτων, of God, Hebrews 12:9, where the term comprises both the spirits of men and of angels.

b. a human soul that has left the body ((Babrius 122, 8)): plural (Latinmanes), Hebrews 12:23; 1 Peter 3:19.

c. a spirit higher than man but lower than God, i. e. an angel: plural Hebrews 1:14; used of demons, or evil spirits, who were conceived of as inhabiting the bodies of men: (Mark 9:20); Luke 9:39; Acts 16:18; plural, Matthew 8:16; Matthew 12:45; Luke 10:20; Luke 11:26; πνεῦμα Πύθωνος or πύθωνα, Acts 16:16; πνεύματα δαιμονίων, Revelation 16:14; πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου, Luke 4:33 (see δαιμόνιον, 2); πνεῦμα ἀσθενείας, causing infirmity, Luke 13:11; πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον, Matthew 10:1; Matthew 12:43; Mark 1:23, 26, 27; Mark 3:11, 30; Mark 5:2, 8, 13; Mark 6:7; Mark 7:25; Mark 9:25; Luke 4:36; Luke 6:18; Luke 8:29; Luke 9:42; Luke 11:24, 26; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 18:2; ἄλαλον, κωφόν (for the Jews held that the same evils with which the men were afflicted affected the demons also that bad taken possession of them (cf. Wetstein, N. T. i. 279ff; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, Appendix xvi.; see δαιμονίζομαι etc. and references)), Mark 9:17, 25; πονηρόν, Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Acts 19:12, 13, 15, 16, (cf. Judges 9:23; 1 Samuel 16:14; 1 Samuel 19:9, etc.).

d. "the spiritual nature of Christ, higher than the highest angels, close to God and most intimately united to him" (in doctrinal phraseology the divine nature of Christ): 1 Timothy 3:16; with the addition of ἁγιωσύνης (on which see ἁγιωσύνη, 1 (yet cf. 4 a. below)), Romans 1:4 (but see Meyer at the passage, Ellicott on 1 Timothy, the passage cited); it is called πνεῦμα αἰώνιον, in tacit contrast with the perishable ψυχαί of sacrificial animals, in Hebrews 9:14, where cf. Delitzsch (and especially Kurtz).

4. The Scriptures also ascribe a πνεῦμα to God, i. e. God's power and agency — distinguishable in thought (or modalistice, as they say in technical speech) from God's essence in itself considered — "manifest in the course of affairs, and by its influence upon souls productive in the theocratic body (the church) of all the higher spiritual gifts and blessings"; (cf. the resemblances and differences in Philo's use of τό θεῖον πνεῦμα, e. g. de gigant. § 12 (cf. § 5f); quis rer. div. § 53; de mund. opif. § 46, etc.).

a. This πνεῦμα is called in the O. T. אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ, יְהוָה רוּחַ; in the N. T. πνεῦμα ἅγιον, τό ἅγιον πνεῦμα, τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον (first so in Wis. 1:5 Wis. 9:17; for קֹדֶשׁ רוּחַ, in Psalm 50:13 (), Isaiah 63:10, 11, the Sept. renders by πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης), i. e. the Holy Spirit (august, full of majesty, adorable, utterly opposed to all impurity): Matthew 1:18, 20; Matthew 3:11; Matthew 12:32; Matthew 28:19; Mark 1:8; Mark 3:29; Mark 12:36; Mark 13:11; Luke 1:15, 35; Luke 2:25, 26; Luke 3:16, 22; Luke 4:1; Luke 11:13; Luke 12:10, 12; John 1:33; John 7:39 (L T WH omit; Tr brackets ἅγιον); John 14:26; John 20:22; Acts 1:2, 5, 8, 16; Acts 2:33, 38; Acts 4:25 L T Tr WH; (L T WH omit; Tr brackets τό ἅγιον), ; ; Romans 9:1; Romans 14:17; Romans 15:13, 16, 19 (L Tr WH in brackets); 1 Corinthians 6:19; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 2 Corinthians 6:6; 2 Corinthians 13:13 (14); Ephesians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 1:5, 6; 2 Timothy 1:14; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 2:4; Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 9:8; 1 John 5:7 Rec.; Jude 1:20; other examples will be given below in the phrases; (on the use and the omission of the article, see Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, ii., p. 105 (in opposition to Harless (on Ephesians 2:22), et al.; cf. also Meyer on Galatians 5:16; Ellicott on Galatians 5:5; Winers Grammar, 122 (116); Buttmann, 89 (78))); τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Ephesians 4:30; 1 Thessalonians 4:8; πνεῦμα Θεοῦ, Romans 8:9, 14; τό τοῦ Θεοῦ πνεῦμα, 1 Peter 4:14; (τό) πνεῦμα (τοῦ) Θεοῦ, Matthew 3:16; Matthew 12:18, 28; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:16; Ephesians 3:16; 1 John 4:2; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν, 1 Corinthians 6:11; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ πατρός, Matthew 10:20; πνεῦμα Θεοῦ ζῶντος, 2 Corinthians 3:3; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος Ἰησοῦν, Romans 8:11; τό πνεῦμα τό ἐκ Θεοῦ (emanating from God and imparted unto men), 1 Corinthians 2:12; πνεῦμα and τό πνεῦμα τοῦ κυρίου, i. e. of God, Luke 4:18; Acts 5:9 (cf. Acts 5:4); ; κυρίου, i. e. of Christ, 2 Corinthians 3:17, 18 (cf. Buttmann, 343 (295)); τό πνεῦμα Ἰησοῦ, since the same Spirit in a peculiar manner dwelt in Jesus, Acts 16:7 (where Rec. omits Ἰησοῦ); Χριστοῦ, Romans 8:9; Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Philippians 1:19; τό ἐν τίνι (in one's soul (not WH marginal reading)) πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ, 1 Peter 1:11; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ (τοῦ Θεοῦ), Galatians 4:6; simply τό πνεῦμα or πνεῦμα: Matthew 4:1; Matthew 12:31, 32; Matthew 22:43; Mark 1:10, 12; Luke 2:1, 14; John 1:32, 33; John 3:6, 8, 34; John 7:39; Acts 2:4; Acts 8:29; Acts 10:19; Acts 11:12, 28; Acts 21:4; Romans 8:6, 16, 23, 26, 27; Romans 15:30; 1 Corinthians 2:4, 10, 13 (where Rec. adds ἁγίου); ; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Corinthians 3:6, 8; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Galatians 3:3, 5, 14; Galatians 4:29; Galatians 5:5, 17, 22, 25; Ephesians 4:3; Ephesians 5:9 Rec.; ; Philippians 2:1; 2 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Timothy 4:1; James 4:5; 1 Peter 1:22 Rec.; 1 John 3:24; 1 John 5:6, 8; Revelation 22:17. Among the beneficent and very varied operations and effects ascribed to this Spirit in the N. T., the following are prominent: by it the man Jesus was begotten in the womb of the virgin Mary (Matthew 1:18, 20; Luke 1:35), and at his baptism by John it is said to have descended upon Jesus (Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22), so that he was perpetually (μένον ἐπ' αὐτόν) filled with it (John 1:32, 33, cf. 3:34; Matthew 12:28; Acts 10:38); hence, to its prompting and aid the acts and words of Christ are traced, Matthew 4:1; Matthew 12:28; Mark 1:12; Luke 4:1, 14. After Christ's resurrection it was imparted also to the apostles, John 20:22; Acts 2. Subsequently other followers of Christ are related to have received it through faith (Galatians 3:2), or by the instrumentality of baptism (Acts 2:38; 1 Corinthians 12:13) and the laying on of hands (Acts 19:5, 6), although its reception was in no wise connected with baptism by any magical bond, Acts 8:12, 15; Acts 10:44ff. To its agency are referred all the blessings of the Christian religion, such as regeneration wrought in baptism (John 3:5, 6, 8; Titus 3:5 (but see the commentators on the passages, and references under the word βάπτισμα, 3)); all sanctification (1 Corinthians 6:11; hence, ἁγιασμός πνεύματος, 2 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Peter 1:2); the power of suppressing evil desires and practising holiness (Romans 8:2ff; Galatians 5:16ff,22; 1 Peter 1:22 (Rec.), etc.); fortitude to undergo with patience all persecutions, losses, trials, for Christ's sake (Matthew 10:20; Luke 12:11, 12; Romans 8:26); the knowledge of evangelical truth (John 14:17, 26; John 15:26; John 16:12, 13; 1 Corinthians 2:6-16; Ephesians 3:5) — hence, it is called πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας (John the passages cited; 1 John 4:6), πνεῦμα σοφίας καί ἀποκαλύψεως (Ephesians 1:17); the sure and joyful hope of a future resurrection, and of eternal blessedness (Romans 5:5; Romans 8:11; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:13f); for the Holy Spirit is the seal and pledge of citizenship in the kingdom of God, 2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13. He is present to teach, guide, prompt, restrain, those Christians whose agency God employs in carrying out his counsels: Acts 8:29, 39; Acts 10:19; Acts 11:12; Acts 13:2, 4; Acts 15:28; Acts 16:6, 7; Acts 20:28. He is the author of charisms or special gifts (1 Corinthians 12:7ff; see χάρισμα), prominent among which is the power of prophesying: τά ἐρχόμενα ἀναγγελεῖ, John 16:13; hence, τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας (Revelation 19:10); and his efficiency in the prophets is called τό πνεῦμα simply (1 Thessalonians 5:19), and their utterances are introduced with these formulas: τάδε λέγει τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Acts 21:11; τό πνεῦμα λέγει, 1 Timothy 4:1; Revelation 14:13; with ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις added, Revelation 2:7, 11, 17, 29; Revelation 3:6, 13, 22. Since the Holy Spirit by his inspiration was the author also of the O. T. Scriptures (2 Peter 1:21; 2 Timothy 3:16), his utterances are cited in the following terms: λέγει or μαρτυρεῖ τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 10:15; τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον ἐλάλησε διά Ἠσαΐου, Acts 28:25, cf. Acts 1:16. From among the great number of other phrases referring to the Holy Spirit the following seem to be noteworthy here: God is said διδόναι τίνι τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Luke 11:13; Acts 15:8; passive, Romans 5:5; more precisely, ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ, i. e. a portion from his Spirit's fullness (Buttmann, § 132, 7; Winer's Grammar, 366 (343)), 1 John 4:13; or έ᾿κχειν ἀπό τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ, Acts 2:17, 18 (for its entire fullness Christ alone receives, John 3:34); men are said, λαμβάνειν πνεῦμα ἅγιον, John 20:22; Acts 8:15, 17, 19; Acts 19:2; or τό πνεῦμα ἅγιον, Acts 10:47; or τό πνεῦμα τό ἐκ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 2:12; or τό πνεῦμα, Galatians 3:2, cf. Romans 8:15; πνεῦμα Θεοῦ ἔχειν, 1 Corinthians 7:40; πνεῦμα μή ἔχειν, Jude 1:19; πληροῦσθαι πνεύματος ἁγίου, Acts 13:52; ἐν πνεύματι, Ephesians 5:18; πλησθῆναι, πλησθήσεσθαι, πνεύματος ἁγίου, Luke 1:15, 41, 67; Acts 2:4; Acts 4:8, 31; Acts 9:17; Acts 13:9; πνεύματος ἁγίου πλήρης, Acts 6:5; Acts 7:55; Acts 11:24; πλήρεις πνεύματος (Rec. adds ἁγίου) καί σοφίας, Acts 6:3; πνεύματι and πνεύματι Θεοῦ ἄγεσθαι, to be led by the Holy Spirit, Romans 8:14; Galatians 5:18; φέρεσθαι ὑπό πνεύματος ἁγίου 2 Peter 1:21; the Spirit is said to dwell in the minds of Christians, Romans 8:9, 11; 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:19; 2 Timothy 1:14; James 4:5 (other expressions may be found under βαπτίζω, II.

b. bb.; γεννάω, 1 at the end and 2 d.; ἐκχέω b.; χρίω, a.); γίνεσθαι ἐν πνεύματι, to come to be in the Spirit, under the power of the Spirit, i. e. in a state of inspiration or ecstasy, Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2. Dative πνεύματι, by the power and aid of the Spirit, the Spirit prompting, Romans 8:13; Galatians 5:5; τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ, Luke 10:21 L Tr WH; πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, 1 Peter 1:12 (where R G T have ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ); πνεύματι Θεοῦ, Philippians 3:3 L T Tr WH; also ἐν πνεύματι, Ephesians 2:22; Ephesians 3:5 (where ἐν πνεύματι must be joined to ἀπεκαλύφθη); ἐν πνεύματι, in the power of the Spirit, possessed and moved by the Spirit, Matthew 22:43; Revelation 17:3; Revelation 21:10; also ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, Luke 2:27; Luke 4:1; ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, Luke 10:21 Tdf.; ἐν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ πνευματου, Luke 4:14; ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ εἰπεῖν, Mark 12:36; ἐν πνεύματι (ἁγίῳ) προσεύχεσθαι, Ephesians 6:18; Jude 1:20; ἐν πνεύματι Θεοῦ λαλεῖν, 1 Corinthians 12:3; ἀγάπη ἐν πνεύματι, love which the Spirit begets, Colossians 1:8; περιτομή ἐν πνεύματι, effected by the Holy Spirit, opposed to γράμματι, the prescription of the written law, Romans 2:29; τύπος γίνου τῶν πιστῶν ἐν πνεῦμα, in the way in which you are governed by the Spirit, 1 Timothy 4:12 Rec.; (ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, Ephesians 2:18); ἑνότης τοῦ πνεύματος, effected by the Spirit, Ephesians 4:3; καινότης τοῦ πνευματου, Romans 7:6. τό πνεῦμα is opposed to σάρξ i. e. human nature left to itself and without the controlling influence of God's Spirit, subject to error and sin, Galatians 5:17, 19, 22; (); Romans 8:6; so in the phrases περιπατεῖν κατά πνεῦμα (opposed to κατά σάρκα), Romans 8:1 Rec., 4; οἱ κατά πνεῦμα namely, ὄντες (opposed to οἱ κατά σάρκα ὄντες), those who bear the nature of the Spirit (i. e. οἱ πνευματικοί), Romans 8:5; ἐν πνεύματι εἶναι (opposed to ἐν σαρκί), to be under the power of the Spirit, to be guided by the Spirit, Romans 8:9; πνεύματι (dative of 'norm'; (cf. Buttmann, § 133, 22 b.; Winer's Grammar, 219 (205))) περιπατεῖν (opposed to ἐπιθυμίαν σαρκός τέλειν), Galatians 5:16. The Holy Spirit is a δύναμις, and is expressly so called in Luke 24:49, and δύναμις ὑπιστου, Luke 1:35; but we find also πνεῦμα (or πνεῦμα ἅγιον) καί δύναμις, Acts 10:38; 1 Corinthians 2:4; and δύναμις τοῦ πνεύματος, Luke 4:14, where πνεῦμα is regarded as the essence, and δύναμις its efficacy; but in 1 Thessalonians 1:5 ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ is epexegetical of ἐν δυνάμει. In some passages the Holy Spirit is rhetorically represented as a Person ((cf. references below)): Matthew 28:19; John 14:16f, 26; John 15:26; John 16:13-15 (in which passages from John the personification was suggested by the fact that the Holy Spirit was about to assume with the apostles the place of a person, namely of Christ); τό πνεῦμα, καθώς βούλεται, 1 Corinthians 12:11; what anyone through the help of the Holy Spirit has come to understand or decide upon is said to have been spoken to him by the Holy Spirit: εἶπε τό πνεῦμα τίνι, Acts 8:29; Acts 10:19; Acts 11:12; Acts 13:4; τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον διαμαρτύρεταί μοι, Acts 20:23. τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον ἔθετο ἐπισκόπους, i. e. not only rendered them fit to discharge the office of bishop, but also exercised such an influence in their election (Acts 14:23) that none except fit persons were chosen to the office, Acts 20:28; τό πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις in Romans 8:26 means, as the whole context shows, nothing other than this: 'although we have no very definite conception of what we desire (τί προσευξώμεθα), and cannot state it in fit language (καθό δεῖ) in our prayer but only disclose it by inarticulate groanings, yet God receives these groanings as acceptable prayers inasmuch as they come from a soul full of the Holy Spirit.' Those who strive against the sanctifying impulses of the Holy Spirit are said ἀντιπίπτειν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ, Acts 7:51; ἐνυβρίζειν τό πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος, Hebrews 10:29. πειράζειν τό πνεῦμα τοῦ κυρίου is applied to those who by falsehood would discover whether men full of the Holy Spirit can be deceived, Acts 5:9; by anthropopathism those who disregard decency in their speech are said λύπειν τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, since by that they are taught how they ought to talk, Ephesians 4:30 (παροξύνειν τό πνεῦμα, Isaiah 63:10; παραπικραίνειν, Psalm 105:33 ()). Cf. Grimm, Institutio theologiae dogmaticae, § 131; (Weiss, Biblical Theol. § 155 (and Index under the phrase, 'Geist Gottes,' 'Spirit of God') Kahnis, Lehre vom Heil. Geiste; Fritzsche, Nova opuscc. acad., p. 278ff; B. D. under the word Spirit the Holy; Swete in Dict. of Christ. Biog. under the phrase, Holy Ghost).

b. τά ἑπτά πνεύματα τοῦ Θεοῦ, Rev. ( (where Rec.st omit ἁπτα)); Revelation 4:5; Revelation 5:6 (here L omits; WH brackets ἑπτά), which are said to be ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ Θεοῦ (Revelation 1:4) are not seven angels, but one and the same divine Spirit manifesting itself in seven energies or operations (which are rhetorically personified, Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:6, 10); cf. Düsterdieck on Revelation 1:4; (Trench, Epistles to the Seven Churches, edition 3, p. 7f).

c. by metonymy, πενυμα is used of α. "one in whom a spirit (πνεῦμα) is manifest or embodied; hence, equivalent to actuated by a spirit, whether divine or demoniacal; one who either is truly moved by God's Spirit or falsely boasts that he is": 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 John 4:2, 3; hence, διακρίσεις πνευμάτων, 1 Corinthians 12:10; μή παντί πνεύματι πιστεύετε, 1 John 4:1; δοκιμάζετε τά πνεύματα, εἰ ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστιν, ibid.; πνεύματα πλανᾷ joined with διδασκαλιαι δαιμονίων, 1 Timothy 4:1. But in the truest and highest sense it is said κύριος τό πνεῦμα ἐστιν, he in whom the entire fullness of the Spirit dwells, and from whom that fullness is diffused through the body of Christian believers, 2 Corinthians 3:17. β. the plural πνεύματα denotes the various modes and gifts by which the Holy Spirit shows itself operative in those in whom it dwells (such as τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, τῆς σοφίας, etc.), 1 Corinthians 14:12.

5. universally, "the disposition or influence which fills and governs the soul of anyone; the efficient source of any power, affection, emotion, desire," etc.: τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι περιεπατήσαμεν, 2 Corinthians 12:18; ἐν πνεύματι ἡλίου, in the same spirit with which Elijah was filled of old, Luke 1:17; τά ῤήματα ... πνεῦμα ἐστιν, exhale a spirit (and fill believers with it), John 6:63; οἵου πνεύματος ἐστε ὑμεῖς (what manner of spirit ye are of) viz. a divine spirit, that I have imparted unto you, Luke 9:55 (Rec.; (cf. B. § 132, 11 I.; Winer's Grammar, § 30, 5)); τῷ πνεύματι, ἐλάλει, Acts 6:10, where see Meyer; πραυ καί ἡσύχιον πνεῦμα, 1 Peter 3:4; πνεῦμα πρᾳότητος, such as belongs to the meek, 1 Corinthians 4:21; Galatians 6:1; τό πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, such as characterizes prophecy and by which the prophets are governed, Revelation 19:10; τῆς ἀληθείας, σοφίας καί ἀποκαλύψεως, see above, p. 521b middle (Isaiah 11:2; Deuteronomy 34:9; Wis. 7:7); τῆς πίστεως, 2 Corinthians 4:13; τῆς υἱοθεσίας, such as belongs to sons, Romans 8:15; τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ, of the life which one gets in fellowship with Christ, ibid. 2; δυνάμεως καί ἀγάπης καί σωφρονισμοῦ, 2 Timothy 1:7; ἕν πνεῦμα εἶναι with Christ, equivalent to to be filled with the same spirit as Christ and by the bond of that spirit to be intimately united to Christ, 1 Corinthians 6:17; ἐν ἑνί πνεύματι, by the reception of one Spirit's efficency, 1 Corinthians 12:13; εἰς ἕν πνεῦμα, so as to be united into one body filled with one Spirit, ibid. R G; ἕν πνεῦμα ποτίζεσθαι (made to drink of i. e.) imbued with one Spirit, ibid. L T Tr WH (see ποτίζω); ἕν σῶμα καί ἐν πνεῦμα, one (social) body filled and animated by one spirit, Ephesians 4:4; — in all these passages although the language is general, yet it is clear from the context that the writer means a spirit begotten of the Holy Spirit or even identical with that Spirit ((cf. Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 46, 6 [ET]; Hermas, sim. 9, 13, 18 [ET]; Ignatius ad Magn. 7 [ET])). In opposition to the divine Spirit stand, τό πνεῦμα τό ἐνεργουν ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας (a spirit) that comes from the devil), Ephesians 2:2; also τό πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου, the spirit that actuates the unholy multitude, 1 Corinthians 2:12; δουλείας, such as characterizes and governs slaves, Romans 8:15; κατανύξεως, Romans 11:8; δειλίας, 2 Timothy 1:7; τῆς πλάνης, 1 John 4:6 (πλανήσεως, Isaiah 19:14; πορνείας, Hosea 4:12; Hosea 5:4); τό τοῦ ἀντιχρίστου namely, πνεῦμα, 1 John 4:3; ἕτερον πνεῦμα λαμβάνειν, i. e. different from the Holy Spirit, 2 Corinthians 11:4; τό πνεῦμα τοῦ νως, the governing spirit of the mind, Ephesians 4:23. Cf. Ackermann, Beiträge zur theol. Würdigung u. Abwägung der Begriffe πνεῦμα, νοῦς, u. Geist, in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1839, p. 873ff; Büchsenschütz, La doctrine de l'Esprit de Dieu selon l'aneien et nouveau testament. Strasb. 1840; Chr. From Fritzsche, De Spiritu Sancto commentatio exegetica et dogmatica, 4 Pts. Hal. 1840f, included in his Nova opuscula academica (Turici, 1846), p. 233ff; Kahnis, Die Lehre v. hiel. Geist. Part i. (Halle, 1847); an anonymous publication (by Prince Ludwig Solms Lich, entitled) Die biblische Bedeutung des Wortes Geist. (Giessen, 1862); H. H. Wendt, Die Begriffe Fleisch u. Geist im Biblical Sprachgebrauch. (Gotha, 1878); (Cremer, in Herzog edition 2, under the phrase, Geist des Menschen; G. L. Hahn, Theol. d. N. Test. i. § 149ff; J. Laidlaw, The Bible Doctrine of Man. (Cunningham Lects., 7th Series, 1880); Dickson, St. Paul's use of the terms Flesh and Spirit. (Glasgow, 1883); and references in B. D. (especially Amos edition) and Dict. of Christ. Biog., as above, 4 a. at the end.)


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