1223. dia
Lexical Summary
dia: through, on account of, because of
Original Word: διά
Transliteration: dia
Phonetic Spelling: (dee-ah')
Part of Speech: Preposition
Short Definition: through, on account of, because of
Meaning: through, on account of, because of
Strong's Concordance
through, on account of

A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal, or occasional) -- after, always, among, at, to avoid, because of (that), briefly, by, for (cause)... Fore, from, in, by occasion of, of, by reason of, for sake, that, thereby, therefore, X though, through(-out), to, wherefore, with (-in). In composition it retains the same general importance.

Thayer's Greek Lexicon
STRONGS NT 1223: διά

διά ("written δἰ before a vowel, except in proper names and 2 Corinthians 5:7; Romans 8:10" Tdf. Proleg., p. 94), akin to δίς and Latindis in composition, properly, denoting a division into two or more parts; a preposition taking the genitive and the accusative. In its use the biblical writers differ in no respect from the Greek; cf. Winer's Grammar, 377ff (353ff); 398 (372)f

A. with the genitive: through;

I. of place;

1. properly, after verbs denoting an extension, or a motion, or an act, that occurs through any place: δἰ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀναχωρεῖν, Matthew 2:12; δἰ ἀνύδρων τόπων, Matthew 12:43; διά τῆς Σαμαρείας, John 4:4; διά τῆς θύρας, John 10:1f; add, Matthew 19:24; Mark 2:23; Mark 10:25; Mark 11:16; Luke 4:30; Luke 5:19; Luke 18:25; 2 Corinthians 11:33; Hebrews 9:11; Hebrews 11:29, etc.; δἰ ὑμῶν, through your city, Romans 15:28; (on διά πάντων, Acts 9:32, see πᾶς, II. 1); διά πάντων, diffusing his saving influence through all, Ephesians 4:6; σῴζεσθαι διά πυρός, 1 Corinthians 3:15; διασῴζεσθαι δἰ ὕδατος, 1 Peter 3:20 (Ev. Nicod. c. 9, p. 568f, Thilo edition (p. 228, Tdf. edition) διά θαλάσσης ὡς διά ξηρᾶς); βλέλπειν δἰ ἐσόπτρου, 1 Corinthians 13:12 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356)). Add the adverbial phrase δἰ ὅλου from top to bottom, throughout, John 19:23 (metaphorically, in every way, 1 Macc. 6:18). From this use of the preposition has come

2. its tropical use of state or condition in which (properly, passing through which as through a space) one does or suffers something, where we, with a different conception, employ with, in, etc. (German bei, unter, mit): διά γράμματος καί περιτομῆς παραβάτης νόμου, Romans 2:27 (Winers Grammar, 380 (355)); οἱ πιστεύοντες :2di) ἀκροβυστίας who believe, though uncircumcised (see ἀκροβυστία, a.), Romans 4:11; διά προσκόμματος ἐσθίειν, with offence, or so as to be an offence (cf. Winers Grammar, 380 (356), and see πρόσκομμα), Romans 14:20; διά πίστεως περιπατεῖν, οὐ διά εἴδους (see εἶδος, 1), 2 Corinthians 5:7; τά διά (Lachmann marginal reading (cf. Tr marginal reading) τά ἰδίᾳ (see Meyer at the passage)) τοῦ σώματος;, done in the body (i. e. while we were clothed with our earthly body (others take διά here instrumentally; see III. 2 below)), 2 Corinthians 5:10; διά πολλῶν δακρύων, 2 Corinthians 2:4; διά δόξης, clothed with glory, 2 Corinthians 3:11; ἔρχεσθαι, ἐισέρχεσθαι διά τίνος with a thing, Hebrews 9:12; 1 John 5:6 (but cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (355)); δἰ ὑπομονῆς, Romans 8:25 (διά πένθους τό γῆρας διάγειν, Xenophon, Cyril 4, 6, 6; cf. Mattiae ii., p. 1353).

II. of Time (cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356); Ellicott or Meyer on Galatians 2:1; Fritzsche as below);

1. of continued time; hence,

a. of the time throughout (during) which anything is done: Matthew 26:61; Mark 14:58; δἰ ὅλης (τῆς R G) νυκτός, Luke 5:5; διά παντός τοῦ ζῆν, Hebrews 2:15; διά παντός (so L WH Tr (except Mark 5:5; Luke 24:53)), or written together διαπαντός (so G T (except in Matt.); cf. Winers Grammar, 46 (45); Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 125), continually, always: Matthew 18:10; Mark 5:5; Luke 24:53; Acts 2:25 (from Psalm 15:8 ()); ; Romans 11:10 (from Psalm 68:24 ()); 2 Thessalonians 3:16; Hebrews 9:6; Hebrews 13:15 (often in Greek writings).

b. of the time within which a thing is done: διά τῆς νυκτός (L T Tr WH διά νυκτός), by night, Acts 5:19; Acts 16:9; Acts 17:10; Acts 23:31, (Palaeph. 1, 10); δἰ ἡμερῶν τεσσαράκοντα, repeatedly within the space of forty days, Acts 1:3; — (denying this use of the preposition, C. F. A. Fritzsche in Fritzschiorum Opuscc., p. 164f would refer these instances to the use noted under a. (see Winer's, Ellicott, Meyer as above)).

2. of time elapsed, and which has, so to say, been passed through: Galatians 2:1 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356)); δἰ ἡμερῶν (some) days having intervened, after (some) days, Mark 2:1; δἰ ἐτῶν πλειόνων, Acts 24:17; examples from Greek authors in Fritzsche on Mark, p. 50; (Winers Grammar, 380 (356); Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. II. 2; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, 2; Field, Otium Norv. iii, p. 14).

III. of the Means or Instrument by which anything is effected; because what is done by means of person or thing seems to pass as it were through the same (cf. Winer's Grammar, 378 (354)).

1. of one who is the author of the action as well as its instrument, or of the efficient cause: δἰ αὐτοῦ (i. e. τοῦ Θεοῦ) τά πάντα namely, ἐστιν or ἐγένετο, Romans 11:36; also δἰ οὗ, Hebrews 2:10; δἰ οὗ ἐκλήθητε, 1 Corinthians 1:9; add (Galatians 4:7 L T Tr WH, see below); Hebrews 7:21 ( ἰατρικη πᾶσα διά τοῦ Θεοῦ τούτου, i. e. Aesculapius, κυβερναται, Plato, symp., p. 186 e.; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. i., p. 15 (and for examples Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 1)); of him to whom that is due which anyone has or has done; hence equivalent to by the fault of anyone: δἰ οὗ τό σκάνδαλον ἔρχεται, Matthew 18:7; δἰ ἑνός ἀνθρώπου ἁμαρτία ... εἰσῆλθε, Romans 5:12, cf. Romans 5:16-19; ἠσθένει διά τῆς σαρκός, Romans 8:3; by the merit, aid, favor of anyone: ἐν ζωή βασιλεύσουσι διά, etc. Romans 5:17, cf. Romans 5:18; 1 Corinthians 15:21; διά τοῦ Χριστοῦ, and the like: Romans 5:1f Romans 5:11; Acts 10:43; Galatians 4:7 (Rec., but see above); δοκάζειν τόν Θεόν διά Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 1 Peter 4:11, and εὐχαριστεῖν τῷ Θεῷ διά Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Romans 1:8; Romans 7:25 (where L T Tr WH text χάρις τῷ Θεῷ); Colossians 3:17 — because the possibility both of glorifying God and of giving thanks to him is due to the kindness of Christ: καυχᾶσθαι ἐν τῷ Θεῷ διά Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Romans 5:11; ἀναπαύεσθαι διά τίνος, Philemon 1:7; οἱ πεπιστευκότες διά τῆς χαριστος, Acts 18:27; πολλῆς εἰρήνης τυγχάνοντες διά σου ... διά τῆς σής προνοίας, Acts 24:2 (3); ὑπερνικαν διά τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντος ἡμᾶς, Romans 8:37; περισσεύειν διά τίνος, by the increase which comes from one, Philippians 1:26; 2 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 9:12; διά τῆς ὑμῶν δεήσεως, Philippians 1:19; add, Philemon 1:22 Romans 1:12; 2 Corinthians 1:4; Galatians 4:23; 1 Peter 1:5.

2. of the instrument used to accomplish a thing, or of the instrumental cause in the stricter sense: — with the genitive of person by the service, the intervention of, anyone; with the genitive of thing, "by means of with the help of, anything;

a. in passages where a subject expressly mentioned is said to do or to have done a thing by some person or by some thing: Mark 16:20 (τοῦ κυρίου τόν λόγον βεβαιοῦντος διά τῶν σημείων); Luke 1:70; Acts 1:16; Acts 2:22 (τέρασι καί σημείοις, οἷς ἐποίησε δἰ αὐτοῦ Θεός); Acts 8:20; Acts 10:36; Acts 15:28 (γράψαντες διά χειρός αὐτῶν); Acts 20:28; Acts 21:19; Acts 28:25; Romans 2:16; Romans 3:31; Romans 7:13; ( Rec.bez elz L edition min. T WH text); Romans 15:18; Romans 16:18; 1 Corinthians 1:21 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 4:15; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 1 Corinthians 14:9, 19 (R G); ; 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 4:14 R G; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); ; Ephesians 1:5; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20, 22; Colossians 2:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 1:2, 3 (R G); ; Revelation 1:1; γῆ ἐξ ὕδατος (material cause) καί δἰ ὕδατος συνεστῶσα τῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ λόγῳ, 2 Peter 3:5 (Winers Grammar, 419 (390) cf. 217 (204)).

b. in passages in which the author or principal cause is not mentioned, but is easily understood from the nature of the case, or from the context: Romans 1:12; 1 Corinthians 11:12 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); Philippians 1:20; 1 Thessalonians 3:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:2, 15; Hebrews 11:39 (cf. Winer's Grammar, as above, also § 50, 3); ; 1 Peter 1:7; διά πολλῶν μαρτύρων, by the mediation (intervention) of many witnesses, they being summoned for that purpose (cf. Winers Grammar, 378 (354); A. V. among), 2 Timothy 2:2. Where it is evident from the religious conceptions of the Bible that God is the author or first cause: John 11:4; Acts 5:12; Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 2:19; 2 Timothy 1:6; Hebrews 10:10; 2 Peter 3:6; σῴζεσθαι διά πίστεως, Ephesians 2:8; συνεγείρεσθαι διά τῆς πίστεως, Colossians 2:12; δικαιοῦσθαι διά τῆς πίστεως, Galatians 2:16, cf. Romans 3:30; in the phrases διά τοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, and the like: John 1:17; John 3:17; Acts 13:38; Romans 1:5; Romans 5:9; 1 Corinthians 15:57; 1 John 4:9; Philippians 1:11; διά τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, 1 Corinthians 15:2; Ephesians 3:6; διά λόγου Θεοῦ, 1 Peter 1:23, cf. 1 Peter 1:3; διά νόμου, Romans 3:27; Romans 4:13; δἰ ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Galatians 1:12, cf. Galatians 1:15f; διά τοῦ (ἁγίου) πνεύματος, Romans 5:5; 1 Corinthians 7:8; Ephesians 3:16; πιστεύειν διά τίνος (see πιστεύω, 1 b. γ), John 1:7; 1 Corinthians 3:5; σημεῖον γέγονε δἰ αὐτῶν, Acts 4:16; λόγος δἰ ἀγγέλων λαληθείς, Hebrews 2:2, cf. Galatians 3:19; νόμος διά Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη, John 1:17; in passages in which something is said to have been spoken through the O. T. prophets, or some one of them (cf. Lightfoot Fresh Revision etc., p. 121f): Matthew 2:5, 17 L T Tr WH, Matthew 2:23; (Matthew 3:3 L T Tr WH); Matthew 4:14; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 24:15; Matthew 27:9; Acts 2:16; or to have been so written: Luke 18:31; with the added mention of the first cause: ὑπό τοῦ κυρίου διά τοῦ προφήτου, Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15, cf. Luke 1:70; Acts 1:16; Acts 28:25; Romans 1:2; in passages relating to the Logos: πάντα δἰ αὐτοῦ (i. e., through the Divine Logos (cf. Winer's Grammar, 379 (355))) ἐγένετο or ἐκτίσθη: John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6 (where he is expressly distinguished from the first cause: ἐξ αὐτοῦ (Winer's Grammar, 419 (391))); Colossians 1:16 (Winer's Grammar, the passage cited), cf. Hebrews 1:2 (Philo de cherub. § 35). The instrumental cause and the principal are distinguished in 1 Corinthians 11:12 (διά τῆς γυναικός ... ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ); Galatians 1:1 (ἀπ' ἀνθρώπων ... δἰ ἀνθρώπου (cf. Winer's Grammar, 418 (390))).

3. with the genitive of a thing διά is used to denote the manner in which a thing is done, or the formal cause: εἶπε διά παραβολῆς, Luke 8:4; εἶπε δἰ ὁρματος, Acts 18:9; ἀπαγγέλλειν διά λόγου, by word of mouth, Acts 15:27; τῷ λόγῳ δἰ ἐπιστολῶν, 2 Corinthians 10:11, cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:15; πίστις ἐνεργουμένη δἰ ἀγάπης, Galatians 5:6; κεχάρισται δἰ ἐπαγγελίας, Galatians 3:18; δουλεύειν διά τῆς ἀγάπης, Galatians 5:13; ἐπιστέλλειν διά βραχέων, Hebrews 13:22; γράφειν δἰ ὀλίγων, 1 Peter 5:12 (Plato, Gorgias, p. 449 b. διά μακρῶν λόγους ποιεῖσθαι (see ὀλίγος, at the end; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 51, 1 b.)); διά χάρτου καί μέλανος, 2 John 1:12; διά μέλανος καί καλάμου, 3 John 1:13 (Plutarch, Sol. 17, 3). To this head I should refer also the use of διά τίνος in exhortations etc. where one seeks to strengthen his exhortation by the mention of a thing or a person held sacred by those whom he is admonishing (διά equivalent to by an allusion to, by reminding you of (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357))): Romans 12:1 15:30; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Corinthians 10:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:2 (yet cf. Winer's Grammar, 379 (355) note); 2 Thessalonians 3:12 R G.

B. with the accusative (Winer's Grammar, 398f (372f)).

I. of place; through; often so in the Greek poets, once in the N. T. according to L T Tr WH viz. Luke 17:11 διά μέσον Σαμαρείας, for R G διά μέσου Σαμαρείας (but see μέσος, 2).

II. of the Ground or Reason on account of which anything is or is not done; by reason of because of (German aus Grund).

1. of the reason for which a thing is done, or of the efficient reason, when for greater perspicuity it may be rendered by (cf. Kühner, § 434 Anm.);

a. with the accusative of the thing: δἰ ἥν, viz. τήν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμέραν (properly, by reason of which day, i. e. because it will come (cf. Winer's Grammar, 400 (373))), 2 Peter 3:12; διά τόν λόγον (properly, by reason of the word, i. e. because the word has cleansing power), John 15:3; διά τό θέλημα σου (Vulg.proptar voluntatem tuam, i. e. because thou didst will it), Revelation 4:11; add, Revelation 12:11; Revelation 13:14 (ἀναβιώσκεται διά τήν τοῦ πατρός φύσιν, Plato, symp., p. 203 e.); cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 3:1.

b. with the accusative of the person, by whose will, agency, favor, fault, anything is or is done: διά τόν πατέρα ... δἰ ἐμέ (properly, because the father lives ... because I live (cf. Winer's Grammar, 399 (373))), John 6:57; διά τόν ὑπταξαντα, by the will of him who subjected it, opposed to οὐχ ἑκοῦσα, Romans 8:20 (cf. Winer's 399 (373) note); μή εἴπῃς ὅτι διά κύριον ἀπέστην, Sir. 15:11; so too in the Greek writings of every age; cf. Krüger, § 68, 23; Grimm on 2 Macc. 6:25. Much more often

2. of the reason or cause on account of which anything is or is done, or ought to be done; on account of, because of;

a. in the phrases διά τοῦτο, for this cause; for this reason; therefore; on this account; since this is so: Matthew 6:25; Matthew 12:27, 31; Matthew 13:13, etc.; Mark 6:14; Mark 11:24; Luke 11:49; Luke 14:20; John 6:65; John 9:23; Acts 2:26; Romans 1:26; Romans 4:16; Romans 5:12; Romans 13:6; Romans 15:9; 1 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 11:10, 30; 2 Corinthians 4:1; Ephesians 1:15; Ephesians 5:17; Ephesians 6:13; Colossians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 3:5, 7; 2 Thessalonians 2:11; 2 Timothy 2:10; Hebrews 1:9; Hebrews 2:1; 1 John 4:5; 3 John 1:10; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 18:8. followed by ὅτι, for this cause ... because, therefore ... because: John 5:16, 18; John 8:47; John 10:17; John 12:18, 39; 1 John 3:1; cf. Tholuck edition 7 on John 10:17 (he questions, at least for John 10:17 and John 12:39, the canon of Meyer (on 12:39), Luthardt (on John 10:17), others, that in this phrase in John the τοῦτο always looks backward) in the opposite order (when the words that precede with ὅτι are to be emphasized): John 15:19. It indicates the end and purpose, being followed either by ἵνα, 2 Corinthians 13:10; 1 Timothy 1:16; Philemon 1:15, (in the opposite order, John 1:31); or by ὅπως, Hebrews 9:15. διά τί (so L Tr WH) and written together διατί (so G T; cf. Winers Grammar, 45; (Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 126), why? wherefore? Matthew 9:11, 14; Matthew 13:10; Matthew 17:19; Mark 2:18; Luke 5:30; John 7:45; Acts 5:3; Romans 9:32; 1 Corinthians 6:7; Revelation 17:7. δἰ ἥν αἰτίαν, see αἰτία, 1. τίς αἰτία, δἰ ἥν, Acts 10:21; Acts 23:28; διά ταύτην τήν αἰτίαν, Acts 28:20; διά ταῦτα, Ephesians 5:6, etc.

b. used, with the accusative of any noun, of the mental affection by which one is impelled to some act (English for; cf. Winer's Grammar, 399 (372) διά φθόνον, because prompted by envy, for envy, Matthew 27:18; Mark 15:10; διά τόν φόβον τίνος, John 7:13; John 19:38; John 20:19; Revelation 18:10, 15; διά τήν πολλήν ἀγάπην, Ephesians 2:4. of any other cause on account of which one is said to do or to have done something — as in Matthew 14:3, 9; Matthew 15:3, 6; John 4:39, 41; John 12:11; John 14:11; Acts 28:2; Romans 3:25 (διά τήν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγονότων ἁμαρτημάτων because of the pretermission etc., i. e. because he had left the sins unpunished); Romans 6:19; Romans 15:15; 2 Corinthians 9:14; Galatians 4:13 (δἰ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκός, on account of an infirmity of the flesh, i. e. detained among you by sickness; cf. Wieseler (or Lightfoot) at the passage); — or to suffer or have suffered something, Matthew 24:9; Matthew 27:19; Luke 23:19, 25; Acts 21:35; 2 Corinthians 4:11; Colossians 3:6; 1 Peter 3:14; Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:9; — or to have obtained something, Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 5:14; 1 John 2:12; — or to be or to become something, Romans 8:10 11:28; Ephesians 4:18; Hebrews 5:12 (Winer's Grammar, 399 (373)); Hebrews 7:18. of the impeding cause, where by reason of some person or thing something is said to have been impossible: Matthew 13:58; Matthew 17:20; Mark 2:4; Luke 5:19; Luke 8:19; Acts 21:34; Hebrews 3:19; Hebrews 4:6. διά with the accusative of a person is often equivalent to for the benefit of (English for the sake of): Mark 2:27; John 11:42; John 12:30; 1 Corinthians 11:9; Hebrews 1:14; Hebrews 6:7 διά τούς ἐκλεκτούς, Matthew 24:22; Mark 13:20; 2 Timothy 2:10; διά Χριστόν for Christ's sake, to promote his cause, 1 Corinthians 4:10; δἰ ὑμᾶς, John 12:30; 2 Corinthians 4:15; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Philippians 1:24; 1 Thessalonians 1:5. διά τινα, because of the example set by one: 2 Corinthians 2:10; Romans 2:24; 2 Peter 2:2; διά τόν Χριστόν, for Christ, to become a partner of Christ, Philippians 3:7 (equivalent to ἵνα Χριστόν κερδήσω, Philippians 3:8).

c. διά τό, because that, for that, is placed before the infinitive — either standing alone, as Luke 9:7; Hebrews 7:23; — or having a subject accusative expressed, as Matthew 24:12; Mark 5:4; Luke 2:4; Luke 19:11; Acts 4:2; Acts 12:20; Acts 18:2; Acts 27:4, 9; Acts 28:18; Philippians 1:7; Hebrews 7:24; Hebrews 10:2; James 4:2; — or with its subject accusative evident from the context, as Matthew 13:6; Mark 4:6; Luke 11:8; Luke 18:5; Luke 23:8; Acts 8:11; Acts 18:3.

C. In Composition διά indicates:

1. a passing through space or time, through, (διαβαίνω, διέρχομαι, διϋλίζω, etc.); hence,

2. continuity of time (διαμένω, διατελέω, διατηρέω), and completeness of action (διακαθαρίζω, διαζώννυμι).

3. distribution (διαδίδωμι, διαγγέλλω, διαφημίζω).

4. separation (διαλύω, διαιρέω).

5. rivalry and endeavor (διαπίνω, διακατελέγχομαι; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 854; (Winer. as below, p. 6)).

6. transition from one state to another (διαλλάσσω, διορθόω). (Cf. Winer, De verb. comp. etc. Part v.; Valckenaer on Herodotus 5, 18; Cattier. Gazophyl. edition Abresch, Cant. 1810, p. 39; A. Rieder, Ueb. d. mit mehr als ein. prap. zusammeng. verba im N. T., p. 17f) No one of the N. T. writers makes more frequent use of verbs compounded with διά than Luke, (see the list in Winer, as above, p. 3 note; on their construction Winers Grammar, § 52, 4, 8).


Top of Page
Top of Page